5dd548679a8e81bda5ca4b23b9f1d148b8eede38bb8950cec2 AgroWiki : Online Agriculture Library: November 2016

Tuesday, 29 November 2016

Interesting Facts about Agriculture

10 interesting facts about agriculture

  • The practice of Agriculture by the humans dates back to 7,500 BC and the first ever crops cultivated by man were Wheat and Barley.
  • Only 5 percent of water absorbed by plants is retained within them , rest 95 percent is lost through transpiration and guttation .
  • The largest tomato plant in the world is the plant that is in Walt Disney's experimental greenhouse in Lake Buena Vista , Florida , it has set a Guinness World Record by producing 32,000 tomatoes in a single harvest weighing about 522 kg.
  • We all know that an Apple a day will keep you away from doctor , but did you know that "One Guava is equal to four Apples".
  • If you think crops can only be grown in soil , then think again , you are wrong , Plant scientists have successfully developed a technique in which plants are grown in air or moist environment  and the technique is called "Aerophonics".
  • Did you know that it takes 5000 liter of water to produce 1 kg of paddy.
  • A Pomato is a cross-bred crop obtained by grafting Potato plant with Tomato plant.
  • Of all the total population involved in agriculture in India , 79% are women.
  • Cultivation for fruits began around 6000 BC and the first fruit crop domesticated by humans was Fig.
  • How many varieties of rice have you tasted , there are more than 60,000 known varieties of rice in the world. 

Monday, 28 November 2016

Sikkim Organic Mission

Sikkim has inspired the whole nation to go back to its roots by  becoming the first fully organic state in India. With a population of about 6 lakh, Sikkim is the least populated state and it is mainly an Agrarian economy . The main crops cultivated in Sikkim are Rice ,  maize, millet, wheat, barley, oranges, tea, and cardamom. Despite the state's poor topography and transport system, Sikkim has successfully managed to expand its agriculture .
In 2003 The state's Chief minister Shri Pawan Chamling  initiated the Sikkim organic mission and the state has achieved complete chemical free environment becoming India's first organic state in 2015.  Over 70,000 hectares of the farm have been converted and certified as organic lands, this has improved their soil structure and fertility also reduced their cost of production by 30 percent since the cost incurred on synthetic chemicals is omitted. Besides these, their yields have leaped up over years and currently Sikkim is one of the major supplier of organic products in the country. In addition to these, by following organic farming they are promoting Subsistence farming, conserving their soil structure and fertility and conserving their environment as well. The states unemployment has decreased completely and Sikkim has achieved considerable progress in its economy since 2003 and now it has joined hands with organic states of other countries like the United States.

How did Sikkim become full Organic:

The state's Organic mission was initiated in 2003 by the Honorable Chief minister of  Sikkim  Shri Pawan Chamling. He stressed the importance of organic farming, he promised the farmers to provide exclusive retail outlets of organic products and also added a small portion about the organic farming in the textbooks of all schools.

Sikkim department of Agriculture prepared a concept paper called  Going for Organic Farming in Sikkim" and also an action plan in 2003 with main objectives : Promoting organic farming, discouraging the use of chemicals, setting up marketing facilities for organic products and preparing policies regarding organic farming. 
Sikkim State Organic board was also constituted in the same year to highlight and prescribe the organic standards of farms. 

Discouraging the use of  Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides : 

The state withdrew the subsidy on the chemical fertilizers .From 2006-07 onwards transport and taking care of endowment and commission to retailers were additionally pulled back. All the while, the Government embraced a seven-year plan to wipe out the utilization of substance composts and to bit by bit supplant them with natural sources.

Resource Mobilizing :

1. Making of provincial manure units at farmstead.

2. Setting up of vermicompost units 
Foundation of biofertilizer unit 

3. Upgradation of soil testing research center 

4. Revision of acidic soil 

5. Organic certification.

Two Government ranches at Nazitam (East Sikkim) and Mellidara (South Sikkim) were changed over to "Focal point of Excellence for Organic Farming" and vital research and versatile trials were begun to work out a fitting natural bundle of practices.

Development of Bio Villages:

To begin with physical stride towards the transformation of Sikkim agribusiness to organic was the reception of bio-town program utilizing EM (effective microorganisms ) innovation. Beginning from 2003-04 till 2009-10, 396 villages were adopted as bio-villages by the Department of Food Security and Agriculture Development as a team with Maple Orgtech Pvt. Ltd, Kolkata. Around 14,000 ranchers and 14,000 sections of land of land in all the 4 areas of Sikkim were profited under the program.

The State has set up well-equipped soil testing facility with an annual capacity of 10,000 soil sample analysis. During the six years, more than 46,993 soil samples were analyzed and more than 46,000 soil health cards were issued.

Finally, with combined efforts of the Government and farmers, Sikkim finally achieved its goal of complete chemical free farming . The state was announced as the county's first fully organic state on January 18, 2015, and it has made every other state look back towards it and has inspired many other states to turn into organic.

 " Let us emulate the glory of Sikkim in every State of India". 

Friday, 25 November 2016

Green Revolution : A Battle against World Hunger

Norman e borlaug is the father of green revolution

During the 19th century , the population grew geometrically while Agriculture grew at a linear rate and there came a time of dire food shortage with no visible solutions to feed the world's growing populace . It war was the period when Second world war had broke out, many people died due to starvation mainly in the developing nations and the countries affected by the Second World War , therefore Agriculture needed a transformation in order sustain the food requirements of the growing population. While the world fought battles , Dr. Norman Borlaug "Father of Green Revolution " and Agriculture's greatest spokesperson  was fighting a very different kind of battle , a battle against hunger and his weapon of choice was "Biotechnology". He revolutionized the agricultural industry through his remarkable work in Plant Breeding. His work in the field of Agriculture saved billions of life and he was awarded The Noble Peace Prize in 1970 for his remarkable. Dr Norman Borlaug is remembered for saving a billion lives because if not for his work millions of  people would have lost their lives due to severe food shortage particularly in developing countries thus Dr Norman Ernest Borlaug is forever known as "The Father of Green Revolution".

Green Revolution

The term  Green Revolution was used for the first time by former director of US agency for international development William Gaud to indicate the productivity based improvement in food production mainly in Wheat and Rice, Green Revolution began in 1943 , when plant geneticist Norman Borlaug and his team of researchers arrived on Mexican soils , the main components of Green revolution  were High Yielding varieties , chemical fertilizers and plant protection chemicals .  Dr Norman Borlaug believed that Biotechnology was the only means through which the Agricultural productivity could be increased , his goal was to improve the agriculture techniques and biotechnological methods which in turn would improve the yields and thus the living standards of the people of  developing countries , By creating new genetically modified strains of Wheat , Rice , Maize and other crops Borlaug planned to win his battle against the world hunger  .  He developed a new strains of dwarf , disease resistant  high yielding varieties of Wheat , he also created a new  Wheat-Rye hybrid called Triticale which yielded 2 to 3 times more than the local varieties and this technique was later on adopted to develop new varieties of high-yielding rice , this resulted in rapid expansion of agriculture and the yields of food grains shot up nearly 3 to 4 times  . Thus The Green Revolution made agriculture more reliable and more efficient and  thereby made  many developing countries nearly self-sustain.
After the success in Mexico , Borlaug traveled to India and Pakistan in 1961 . Borlaug applied the Biotechnological techniques and spread its knowledge in those countries which resulted in the increase in the productivity , Hence India became self-sustain and today it is one of the most successful rice producing and exporting nations in the world. The Green Revolution was also spread to numerous hungry nations helping them to expand their agriculture industry .

Norman Ernest Borlaug

Norman Borlaug, with his innovation, hoped to save the life of millions , if not billions of people , he revolutionized the trend in Agriculture giving the world the strength to battle against hunger. Borlaug's research was also symbolic of the importance agriculture had gained in the global community .
Borlaug received his B.Sc. Biology in 1937 and Ph.D. in plant pathology and genetics from the University of Minnesota in 1942. He was appointed as a research scientist in Mexico for improvement of Wheat , during this time he developed new dwarf and disease resistant and high yielding varieties of wheat. Amid the mid-twentieth century, Borlaug drove the presentation of these high-yielding varieties consolidated with cutting edge horticultural creation systems to Mexico, Pakistan, and India. Therefore, Mexico turned into a net exporter of wheat by 1963. Somewhere around 1965 and 1970, wheat yields almost shot up three times  in Pakistan and India, incredibly enhancing the sustenance security in those countries. These modern techniques were also adopted in other crops which resulted in a tremendous increase in the yields of the food grains especially Rice , Wheat, and Maize. This series of progress that took place in the field of agriculture is was forever known as The Green Revolution and Dr. Norman Borlaug is called as the father of Green Revolution for the green revolution was the child of his efforts , Norman Borlaug saved billions of lives from starvation and showed them the new path to self sustain themselves , hence in recognition of his honest contribution towards the food supply , he was awarded the Nobel Peace prize in 1970 and he has received honors from 44 universities .  Borlaug served as chief of the Inter-American Food Crop Program (1960–63) and as the executive of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico City, from 1964 to 1979. In 1986 Borlaug created the World Food Prize to respect people who have added to enhancing the accessibility and nature of sustenance around the world.
Dr. Norman died at the age of 95 on 12th September 2009 due to Lymphoma.


- Norman Borlaug

Wednesday, 23 November 2016

Smart touch to Agriculture

Smart touch to agriculture , online marketing is the solution for all the problems of farmers

Today the Primary problem faced by the Indian Farmers is the absence of adequate marketing structures for marketing of  agricultural produce. In the present situation , the producer's share of the returns obtained by marketing the produce is very low. This is because the farmers are not provided with the adequate marketing services and hence leaving them to depend on local traders or middlemen for marketing their crops. In most cases , farmers are either convinced or forced to sell their produce to these mediators since they are not left any other choice. This happens mostly due to lack of transport facilities , inadequate storage structures and also a lack of knowledge of the current marketing prices of the goods. In the case of perishable crops , the produce must either be marketed quickly or should be stored in proper storage godowns shortly after harvesting . But most of the rural farmers of India are below poor and do not have access to this facilities hence they are left with no other choice except to sell their produce to the local traders or middlemen who cheat farmers with their words and convince them into selling their produce at cheaper rates .After obtaining the goods from farmers they, later on, make a profit out of it by selling them at relatively higher prices. In some cases, farmers are not aware of the current mandi prices of the crops hence are tricked by the mediators. In our country especially in the Northern part of India, an average of  20 to 24 percent of the crops grown by the farmers are sold within in the village itself.
In India,  more than 22 percent of the farmers are below poverty line, they depend on private money lenders for  generally charge high rates of interest . As a result of distress sale of the produce due to the above-mentioned reasons , the farmers aren't even getting back their invested money . So unable to pay back the money they have borrowed, farmers are taking the extreme decision of ending their lives ,If we look into the rate of farmers suicide in the country , 5,650 farmer suicides were recorded in the year 2014 and the highest recorded rate was in the year 2004 when 18,241 farmers committed suicide , in India . Maharashtra , Karnataka , Andhra Pradesh are leading in respect of farmer's suicide in the country. So it's clear that distress sale of the agricultural produce is the main reason for farmers suicide in India.
The farmers do not end their lives just because of any family feud or any incurable diseases , they are taking this extreme step of ending their lives leaving their dependents at lurch , purely because of financial distress which is caused mainly due to unavailability of marketing and post-harvest management facilities. 
All these are happening despite concerted efforts by the agricultural scientists and food experts to improve the condition of farmers but still, the rate farmer' suicide has not come down. 
Despite the constant efforts by the Government and Agriculture scientist , the farmers are unable to sell the produce without any hindrances. lack of awareness about the improvements in the field of agriculture among the farmers is also a major reason for this. So what may be the possible solution for this problem ?. 

Smart agriculture is a term that we might have seen in the recent magazines , so what is this smart agriculture. The obvious answer is that it is the key to all the marketing related issues of the farmers.

Today we can find numerous websites that are active online like Amazon , Flipkart , eBay , Snapdeal etc. While these websites are mainly focussed mostly on non-agricultural goods , there are a good number of websites which have come up and are currently active and providing services to the farmers. Websites like IFFCO , KISSAN MARKET , CROFARM , FARMILY which have been set up mainly with the aim of helping farmers market their produce without any distress and intervention by the middlemen.These web services act as a bridge between the farmers and the consumers , they  directly link a farmer to a consumer. Some online agricultural baskets like Ninja cart and Big Basket directly purchase the produce from farmers directly at ongoing market prices  and then sell them to the consumers .The websites also provide complete updates of ongoing market prices of the agricultural commodities so that both farmers and consumers are benefitted.Through these ,the farmers can stop relying on the local traders and sell their produce directly to the consumers at reasonable prices and consumers can get fresh goods at reasonable prices as well and thus eliminate the intervention of middlemen in the process. Few of the websites like FARMILY also provide storage facilities and loan facilities to farmers who need financial assistance. But the problem is that most of the farmers are not aware of these online services and still depend on the local traders , it is important that some measure has to be taken to educate the farmers about Online marketing of agricultural services because clearly e-marketing of agricultural produce holds key to all the marketing related problems of our farmers.

Online Marketing of Agricultural Produce

How does this work , usually the farmers are required to register with the website by providing the necessary details , likewise retailers or consumers also must register with the website.  After registration farmers can post ads containing the details about their crops , price, and quantity similarly consumers can post ads containing details of their requirement and budget. The website then reviews the ads and then link the farmers and consumers whose requirements match. Few online agri stores like Ninjacart and Bigbasket purchase produce from farmers at reasonable prices and then sell them to the consumers. In this process, the farmers can sell produce without any intervention by the mediators and also overcome the transport and storage problems.For the ease of farmers these websites also provide services to the farmers through android based applications which are available for download in Google Playstore for free. These apps also provide updates of all the mandi prices and latest updates of marketing prices

Few Agricultural websites for  Farmers : 

1. National Agricultural Market : National Agriculture Market (NAM) is a pan-India electronic trading portal which networks the existing APMC  to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities.
The NAM Portal provides a single window service for all APMC related information and services. This includes commodity arrivals & prices, buy & sell trade offers, provision to respond to trade offers, among other services. While material flow (agriculture produce) continue to happen through mandis, an online market reduces transaction costs and information asymmetry.

2. Kissan Market : Kissan market is an online web portal which allows its member who has signed up with it to directly interact with the farmers or consumers. The farmers who are members can sell their produce by posting their crop and price which will be displayed on the site while the buyers can post ads of their requirements on the site and get a direct deal from the farmers . Thus this is a great way to eliminate the intrusion of middle man and helping the  farmers  to market their produce at the right price and even helping the consumers get their requirements at reasonable rates.

3. Farmily : Farmily is also a similar website like Kissan market allowing the direct contact of producers and consumers and thus minimizing the interruption of middlemen . With about 30,000 registered users Farmily has won second prize in the best website of India competition organized by the association of Facebook and Internet.org. In addition to this, farmily also benefits the farmers by providing them loans and  storage godowns . The facility is also available on mobile , the farmily app is available in google playstore which can be used to avail all the facilities of farmily from your mobile.

Monday, 21 November 2016

Bangarada Manushya

bangarada manushya ,

ಬಂಗಾರದ ಮನುಷ್ಯ  

Bangarada manushya is a 1972 Kannada movie based on the story written by famous novelist TK Rama Rao , directed by Siddalingaiah and produced by R Lakshman and Gopal .
Padmashree  Dr .Raj Kumar who is the greatest and most popular actor of Kannada film industry has played the lead role  in the movie and it  is  a milestone in the Kannada film industry ,On the centenary of Indian cinema in April 2013, Forbes included Dr Raj kumar's performance in the film on its list, "25 Greatest Acting Performances of Indian Cinema".
 The movie is about how a well educated lad turns into a farmer and prospers in his life despite all the odds and oppositions in his way , the movie has many messages and morals and has inspired many  educated youth who have taken up agriculture instead of other jobs  and have seen great success. Every agriculturist  in the country must watch this movie at least once for this movie is based all about agriculture and it shows the fruits of farming in a very entertaining way . for those who are losing interest in agriculture and think farmers can't compete with doctors and engineers ,  just watch this movie and you will be surely convinced that farmers are no less than doctors and engineers and can live up to them. we can find many examples of people who are well educated but have taken up farming yet have achieved great success.

Watch Bangarada Manushya: full movie:


Dr Raj Kumar seen in the movie as Rajiv returns from the city to his native to visit his sister , but he is welcomed by the sad news of the death of his siter's husband . He then decides to stay with his sisters family as their was no one left to take care of his family . Rajiv was well educated but since he decided to stay in his village , he decides to take up agriculture but he will not have sufficient capitaal to start off   sot he  takes loan from the village head Rachutappa ( Balakrishna  ). He then starts of cultivating his two acre farm with the help of a friend and finally sees success. After he earns enough money he goes ahead and purchases 25 acres of land which initially is a burden land . Rajiv in-spite of  all the oppositions purchases the land and later turns it into a fertile land and cultivates it successfully , having earned a lot of money , he repays all the loan that he had earlier borrowed earns  , the application of modern technology in agriculture is shown and highlighted in these scenes .
The most popular song of the movie Kailagadhu endu kaikatti kulithare sung by PB Srinivas is played at these scenes . This song has mentions of famous Kannada proverbs like Kai Kesaradare bai mosaru , Kayakave Kailasa etc and its truly inspiring.

Impact of the movie :

Bangarada Manushya had a tremendous impact on people. Some city youth, inspired by the movie's central theme returning to one's ancestral village left their jobs, came back to their respective villages and took up agriculture.
The film had a deep social impact on the audience as well and there are many stories of people in the city going to villages and becoming farmers. The film also touched on very important topics like rural development, modern agricultural practices, co-operative movement, social unity, honesty, love and dedication. In the beginning of the movie, it shows the hardship of farmers and how much they have to toil in order to make ends meet. The movie subtly says that middle-class and working-class are the backbone of the country by showing the son of a rich village head as being a spoiled brat wasting his money in the city. One of the most important messages given in the movie is that, one should not waste time and money in trying to modernize/westernize themselves through a posh life style. One should be true to their identity and not try to become someone else. This theme struck a chord with the audience as Karnataka was one of the fast developing states in the country and there was a large migration from rural to urban areas.

Tuesday, 15 November 2016

Fruit Moulding

Fruit moulding , square shaped water melon
Did you know that fruits and vegetables can be moulded into desired shapes based on your fantasy , yes it is possible , by placing immature fruits and vegetables in plastic moulds and allowing them to mature inside the moulds , we can obtain fruits of various shapes depending on our requirement  , the fruit or vegetable as it matures gradually takes the shape of the plastic mold . The shape of the fruit or vegetable solely depends on the shape of the mould in which it is placed for maturing. Sources say that this technique  actually originated in Japan but currently Chinese are expanding this technique and turning it into a commercial business , A Chinese company called  Fruit mould  are offering already grown moulded fruits and vegetables of various shapes as per  the consumer's requirement  for sale , they  also provide  instructions and plastic moulds   for those who are  interested in growing fruit moulds in their garden . You can either purchase ready made moulded fruits or if you are interested in growing them by yourself you can buy the plastic moulds with instructions from the company. for more details visit the companies website Fruitmould.com

Moulding fruits was initially started so that the fruits could fit inside the refrigerators easily and  for the ease of cutting , but now it has turned into a commercial business as the demand for these fruits is increasing. Moulded fruits are desired mostly for aesthetic purposes and are available in few super markets , but  the cost of these moulded fruits are 3 to 4 times the cost of the normal ones since the cost and labor input for growing these crops is more compared to that of the regular fruits. Fruit mould  (Chinese fruit moulding company) is now shipping molded fruits and vegetables of various shapes based on the consumer's fantasy and also their plastic cases all over the world , so the irregularly shaped fruits are now accessible to everybody and anybody can grow it in their own garden , growing these kind of fruits in your garden would increase the aesthetic value of your garden and also will attract your children towards working in the garden. It also improves your skill since growing these type of crops requires skill and  patience.

How to Mould Fruits : 

Step :1  . Select the fruit or mould you want to shape , it should be in immature stage and smaller than the plastic mold. The mold is usually made of polycarbonate plastic.

Step :2  . Place the fruit in the plastic mould and then join the mold with proper screws and cover the mold . Care has to be taken that the crop is getting enough light and water.


Step :3  . Harvest the fruit once it has filled the mould completely , the crop has to be harvested at the right time or else it might result in breaking of the mould.

Step :4 . The crops placed in the molds have to be carefully observed for the right time of harvesting otherwise it might result in deformation of fruits or breaking of the moulds.

Monday, 14 November 2016

Rabbit Farming : Start with Thousands end in Lakhs

rabbit farming and  breeding , rabbit rearing
Unemployment is among one of the major issues faced by the youth of India , numerous young men are struggling hard to discover work while some are befuddled about picking what work they should do and some want to work freely. Well for these unemployed youths who want be self employed ,if they are interested in Agriculture allied sector , then Rabbit farming is a good opportunity , apart from finding an employment one can get decent income by raising Rabbit husbandry.
Rabbit farming is considered as a minor sector among all the other agriculture allied sectors , but the fact is that it has high investment conversion efficiency than other livestock activities .There is a greater scope for rabbit farming because unlike other livestock activities like Sheep or Goat rearing Rabbit farming does not require much investment and place . It can even be started with investment as low as 10,000 yet can yield lakhs if raised with suitable management techniques . It is a good source of additional income in the hilly regions where employment opportunities are limited. Rabbit meat contains very low cholesterol content hence it healthy and risk free and it is recommended by doctors for those people with high blood pressure and heart relate issues. Besides the meat preferred for its taste, tenderness and Juiciness. The multiplication ratio of rabbit eat is 1 : 4 to 5. A good healthy  female gives birth to 35 to 40 kits per year and the present day rate for rabbit meat ranges between Rs. 150 to 250. For this reason Rabbit farming is considered one of the most profitable sectors among all the other Allied sectors of Agriculture when viewed in a comparative manner since its not an input intensive activity. Apart from these the wool obtained from rabbits have various uses , there used to prepare decorative materials for houses and rabbit wool are 6 to 8 times warmer than sheep .The wool from Angora Rabbits is of very high quality and it's blending with carpet wool of sheep and silk improves the quality of woollen to a great extent and the wool is also  mixed with polyester, rayon, nylon, sheep wool and other fibers to make good quality hand looms as well as hand knitted apparels. Rabbits are the best producers of wool on per kg body weight basis. They require 30 % less digestible energy to produce one kg of wool as compared to sheep. All these advantages make Rabbit farming more preferable and profitable  compared to other Livestock activities.

Why should you take up Rabbit Farming :

  1. Initial investment for Rabbit farming is very low and Rabbits are suited to both small scale and large-scale commercial production and do not require much space and labor input when compared to other livestock activities . You can setup a Rabbit farm even in your backyard or garden according to your convenience .
  2. Rabbits can be fed with high forage, low grain diet that is largely non-competitive with human food and they have high feed conversion efficiency.
  3. Rabbit meat is a highly nutritious, tasty and excellent in quality. Meat is rich in protein, low in fat, cholesterol and sodium , it is also rich in poly unsaturated fatty acids and considered as white meat. Thus, can be recommended for cardiac patients .
  4. Rabbits are the best producers of wool on per kg body weight basis. They require 30 % less digestible energy to produce one kg of wool as compared to sheep and Rabbit wool is 6 to 8 times more warmer than Sheep wool hence there is a greater demand for Rabbit wool.
  5. Rabbits have high growth rates hence provides quick returns . Income can be expected within six months of setup.
  6. Apart from Meat and wool we can also derive additional income from selling the Kits and manure . Rabbit manure is highly suitable for Vermicomosting.

Loan Facilities for Rabbit Farming :

NABARD provides loans through banks for farmers who are interested in setting up Rabbit Farms . To avail loan from the bank the entrepreneur must submit a project report containing details about the land availability , water availability , breeds of animal , feed , technical and economic feasibility of the project , experience or the farmer. The Report must contain all these details in order to satisfy the eligibility criteria for sanction of loan. The cost incurred from initial setting of the farm till the point of income generation is covered under the loan except for the cost of the land. 
For more details visit the website : NABARD

How to Raise a successful Rabbit Farm 

1. Shelter : Rabbit rearing does not require much space unlike Sheep or Goat rearing , A small shed depending on the number of Rabbits can be built , Shelter is a very important factor that has to taken care in rabbit farming ,sheds can be built either in your backyard , in your garden or in your farm but it has to laid in a place with a lot of trees , shade , light, good drainage facility and most important of all the place must be quiet and away from people to ensure better growth of the Rabbits . The optimum temperature for rabbit farming is between 18 to 22 degree Celsius , and if the temperature exceeds 25 degree , then the growth of the rabbits will be hindered and thereby reducing the productive capacity of the farm. The optimum moisture required is 65 to 70. Fencing is recommended around the shed in order to prevent the intrusion of dogs , cats , snakes and other rodents which might be troublesome , Fencing can be done with the farm wastes like fallen sticks and hay to reduce the initial cost.

2. Feeding Habit : Rabbits are non ruminants and eat all types of grass (green grass , dry grass , hay ) , vegetables , sprouted seeds , pulses , carrot and even kitchen wastes but it is necessary to provide nutrient rich food like sprouted seeds , pulses and carrots and you can also feed concentrated food materials like soybean meal or peanut meal containing Protein - 13-18%, Digestible Energy - 8-13% and fibre - 8-18% to ensure better growth of the rabbits.

3. Breeding : The female rabbits are called Does and Male are called Bucks and rabbits will be ready for crossing within 6 to 7 months . The gestation period is 28 to 30 days .The pregnant doe must be well fed and protected in order to increase the milk yield . A healthy Doe gives birth to 7 to 8 kits in a single delivery and it conceives 4 to 5 times in a year producing 35 to 40 kits per year.

4. Breeds : There are roughly about 40 different breeds of Rabbits with distinct characteristics , many breeds are reared for meat while some breeds like Angora reared for wool so one most be careful about choosing the breeds considering the climate and other influencing factors.

Few Of the most Preferred Rabbit Breeds :

1. New zealand White : One of the best commercial breed can attain up to 5 kg.

2. Grey giant : Adult weighs 4.5 to 5 kg , it is bred for both meat and fur.

3. Chinchilla : Adults can weigh up to 5 kg , mainly reared for meat.

4. Angora : These are known to be the oldest rabbit breeds , they are mainly reared for their wool  and can weigh up to 3 kg and avg wool yield is 300g to 1000g.

4. Diseases : Most common diseases of Rabbits are Pasteurellosis , Pneumonia , salmonellosis ,enteritis and Snuffels . These diseases are mostly caused by the infection of micro organisms so as a preventive measure early vaccination to the rabbits is recommended , Buy good qulity breeds from a certified breeder , implement quarantine measures.

5. Marketing : Even though demand for rabbit meat and wool is increasing there is no proper marketing structure for rabbit farming , Since the meat has low cholesterol it is recommended by doctors to people with high blood pressure and heart related issues and also there is a greater demand for rabbit wool so certainly  Rabbit farming will gain more scope and demand in future.

Miracle tomato plant

biggest tomato plant in the world which has setup a Guinness world recordThe largest tomato plant in the world may be the plant that is in Walt Disney's experimental greenhouse in Lake Buena Vista , Florida , it has set a Guiness World Record by producing 32,000 tomatoes in a single harvest weighing about 522 kg.

This might be hard to believe but it is true , these tomatoes were grown by a Chinese scientist team in Disney . The tree was planted on 6th of June 2009 , at Disney's experimental green house and by the end of its first harvest season , the plant yielded 32,000 tomatoes weighing about 522 kg , can you imagine that !. This has been recorded in the Guinness book of World records as the single tree yielding most number of tomatoes in a single harvest. 

Now it is surprising because we all know that the average yield of a normal tomato plant is about 40 to 50 kg , how do you think it is possible to grow so many fruits in a single tree.

How is this possible : The Octopus Tomato Plant

This is possible because of the giant Octopus tomato tree , the octopus tomato trees are hybrids developed from normal tomato vines which are genetically engineered to yield more than that of the normal tomato trees , these tomato trees  produce an average yield of about 14,000 tomatoes in a single harvest . The tree usually grows up to 25 feet tall in height and its crown spreads up to 50 meter and it needs a supporting structure to spread upon , with proper management and cultivation techniques the normal yield can be pushed up to 20,000 tomatoes per harvest.
The seeds of these trees are available for sale on eBay  , Amazon and Aliexpress sites for any one who is interested in harvesting 32,000 tomatoes in a single harvest.

Friday, 11 November 2016

Think Before you Dump

Food wastage think before you dump because many people suffering from starvation

Food wastage has become a very common and severe issue in recent days , it is estimated that 500 crore worth food  is wasted in the marriage halls and hostels in  India every week . 
Our farmers sow seeds not as workers but , instead as fathers with all their dreams , desires and their responsibilities to feed millions of hungry people in this world . Earth as a mother protects them within her , allows them to sprout germinate and emerge out . In this portrayal , nature plays the role , the blowing wind helps pollinate their seeds , travelling clouds shower them and sun shines upon them finally letting them grow into plants . crops with all these care stands straight and bold facing the horrifying thunders , storms and irritating pests and weeds . It never bows down until  it sheds a handful of grains to satisfy someone's hunger.
The same crop before reaching your plate as a meal will have to travel a very hard path , not even minding losing its companions  in various  stages of the food supply  chain due to reasons like rejection for not meeting marketing  standards , transportation losses , storage losses and so on. finally completing its violent journey for a good cause , they reach their destination with pride. But this journey finally ends up in garbage .
Now after knowing all the efforts that are put in to produce a single grain and also millions of people who struggling hard to get  at least a days meal,  do you think its fair on ones part to unnecessarily consume more than required , just because of the reason that one has got  purchasing power and then inhumanely toss them into garbage .
Every time a single grain out of our meal gets into the garbage , that means we are not only wasting money but also wasting the honest efforts of the farmers , energy that is spent on producing or processing it .

As a responsible citizens each time you get up from your unfinished meal , with leftovers in the plate having no other go rather than getting into a stinky garbage , just for a second think of those millions of people struggling to grab at least a single meal a day. think of those lakhs of people dying out of starvation and malnutrition , remember the endless efforts of those determined agriculture scientists and policy makers to feed this over populated world . It is estimated that every 4 seconds a person dies due to starvation and hunger related problems in the world. In situations like these each and every grain is precious and should be handled with utmost care.

It is not just about food that we should be worrying about , but we should also think about other added contributions of the contributors of wastage like ...
  1. Hike in prices , making square meal a day a dream for the people below poverty level.
  2. Decomposing landfills full of staple food and rotting vegetables , adding dreadful toxins and green house gases into the nature.
  3. Leachate , a toxic liquid that can seep into streams , rivers and underground water supply when it comes in contact with rain water.
  4. Waste of energy , water , chemicals and labor that went into production , transportation and storage.
It is in our hands to decide what kind of world we want to pass on to our future generations . either a happy or healthy world or .....

One thing is very much true that simple and small actions by us could dramatically cut down the tonnes of food lost or wasted across the world , achieving proper channelization.
"It may be a person growing or a person buying , one has the right to eat but not to waste. So please don't be so inhuman , please do not waste food , every time you waste food , just think of those invisible hands that have toiled hard under the Sun so that the meal you are eating reaches your plate  , think of those millions of people who sleep hungry struggling  to get at least a single meal a day .


Sunday, 6 November 2016

Paddy Facts

interesting facts about paddy , paddy facts , rice facts , interesting facts about paddy

Interesting facts about Paddy

  • It takes about 5000 liters of water to produce one kg of paddy, doesn't believe me grow and see for yourself.
  • About 90 percent of rice is grown and consumed within Asia.
  • Research says Paddy fields are the major source of Methane gas in the atmosphere liberating about 50 to 100 million tons of Methane gas every year. So we can reduce global warming to a large extent just by decreasing consumption of paddy.
  • The word "paddy" is derived from the Malay word "padi" meaning rice plant.
  • China is the largest producer of rice in the world producing about 206 metric tons of rice per annum with an average productivity of  6.5 tons per hectare followed by India producing 155 metric tons per annum with an average productivity of  2.5 tons per hectare.
  • The highest recorded rice yield per hectare was 22.4 tons grown by an Indian farmer Mr. Sumant Kumar, a farmer in Darveshpura, Bihar, India.
  • Evidence has been found that Rice was obtained by the domestication of  Oryza Rufipogon      (wild rice ) which is believed to have originated around 8,200 to 13,500 years ago.
  • The earliest paddy field found, dates to 4330 BC, based on carbon dating of grains of rice and soil organic matter found at the Chaodun site in Kunshan County.
  • There is archaeological evidence, that unhusked rice was stored for the military and for burial with the deceased, from the Neolithic period to the Han Dynasty in China.
  • Paddy is the second most produced cereal of the world after Maize. World production of  Rice was 678 million tons in 2009.
  • There are more than 60,000 known varieties of rice in the world, how many have you tasted.
  • Rice is the Staple food for about 60 percent of the total population in the world.

Thursday, 3 November 2016

ಭವಿಷ್ಯದ ಕೃಷಿಕರು ಯಾರು

ಭವಿಷ್ಯದ ಕೃಷಿಕರು ಯಾರು , ಕೃಷಿ

ಕೃಷಿ ಪ್ರದಾನವಾದ ನಮ್ಮ ದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ಶೇ. 80 ರಷ್ಟು ಹಳ್ಳಿಗಳಿವೆ ಆದ್ದರಿಂದಲೇ ಗಾಂಧೀಜಿ ನಮ್ಮ್ ದೇಶವನ್ನು ಹಳ್ಳಿಗಳ ದೇಶ ಎಂದು ಕರೆದಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಭಾರತದಲ್ಲಿ ಕೃಷಿಯೇ ಮೂಲ ಕಸುಬು ,ಕೃಷಿ ಇಂದು ಜೀವಂತವಾಗಿರುವುದರಿಂದಲೇ ನಾವು ಬದುಕುಳಿಯಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಗಿದೆ ಇಂತಹ ಸಂದರ್ಭದಲ್ಲಿ ನಾವು ರೈತರನ್ನು ನೆನೆಯುವುದರ ಜೊತೆಗೆ ಅವರ ಸದ್ಯದ ಪರಿಸ್ಥಿತಿಯನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸಬೇಕಾಗಿದೆ. ಇಂದು ರೈತನ ಜೀವನವೇ ಬೆಲೆ ಕಳೆದುಕೊಳ್ಳುತಿದ್ದು ಕೃಷಿ ಅವನೀತಿಯ ಅಂಚಿಗೆ ತಲುಪುತ್ತಿದೆ. ಕೃಷಿಯೇ ಪ್ರಧಾನವಾದ ನಮ್ಮದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ಈ ರೀತಿ ಬದಲಾಗಲು ಕಾರಣಗಳು ಏನೆಂಬುದನ್ನು ಅವಲೋಕಿಸುವುದು ಬಹಳ ಅನಿವಾರ್ಯವಾಗದೆ.

ಹಿಂದೆ ಸಾಂಪ್ರೆದಾಯಕ ಮತ್ತು ಸುಸ್ಥಿರ ಕೃಷಿಗೆ ನಮ್ಮ ದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಮಾನ್ಯತೆಯಿತ್ತು.80ರ ದಶಕದ ವರಗೆ ಕೃಷಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಾಂಪ್ರದಾಯಾ ಪದ್ದತಿಯಿದ್ದುದ್ದರಿಂದ ರೈತರು ನೆಮ್ಮದಿಯಿಂದ ಜೀವನ ಸಾಗಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದರು ,ಆಗ ರೈತ ಸ್ವಾವಲಂಬಿಯಾಗಿದ್ದ .ತಾನು ಬೆಳುದುದ್ದರಲ್ಲಿ ತನಗೆ ಅಗತ್ಯವಿದ್ದಷ್ಟನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಂಡು ಮಿಕ್ಕದ್ದನ್ನು ಮಾರಾಟ ಮಾಡುತ್ತಿದ್ದ , ಕೃಷಿಯಿಂದ ಏನನ್ನಾದರೂ ಸಾದಿಸಬಹುದು ಎಂಬ ಆತ್ಮಸ್ಥೈರ್ಯ ಅಂದಿನ ರೈತನಲ್ಲಿತ್ತು  ಕೃಷಿಯಿಂದ ನಾವು ಹಾಳಾಗುವುದಿಲ್ಲ ಎಂದು ಧೃಡವಾಗಿ ನಂಬಿದ್ದ  ಆದರೆ ಇಂದಿನ ರೈತ ಆ ನಂಬಿಕೆಯನ್ನು ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣವಾಗಿ ಕಳೆದುಕೊಂಡ್ಡಿದ್ದಾನೆ.

ಜಾಗತೀಕರಣದ ನಂತರ  ನಮ್ಮ ದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ಕೃಷಿ ಪದ್ದತಿ ಬಹಳಷ್ಟು ಬದಲಾಗಿದೆ .ಸಾವಯವ ಕೃಷಿಯನ್ನು ಮಾಡುತ್ತಾ ಬಂದಿದ್ದ ರೈತ ಈಗ ಎಕಾ ಏಕಿ ಆಧುನಿಕ ಕೃಷಿಯನ್ನು ಅಳವಡಿಸಿಕೊಂಡ್ಡಿದ್ದಾನೆ . ರಾಸಾಯನಿಕ ಗೊಬ್ಬರಗಳ ಬಳಕೆ ಇಲ್ಲದೇ ಬೇಸಾಯ ಮಾಡಲಾರದಷ್ಟು  ಅದಕ್ಕೆ ಅವಲಂಬಿತನಾಗಿದ್ದಾನೆ. ಮಿತಿ ಮೀರಿದ ರಾಸಾಯನಿಕಗಳ ಬಳಕೆಯ ಪರಿಣಾಮ ಇಳುವರಿ ಕಡಿಮೆಯಾಗುವುದರ ಜೊತೆಗೆ ,ಭೂಮಿ ತನ್ನ ಫಲವತ್ತತೆಯನ್ನು ಕಳೆದುಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತಿದೆ . ಇಂದು ರೈತರು ಮಾರುಕಟ್ಟೆಯ ದ್ರಿಷ್ಟಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಬೆಲೆ ಬೆಳೆಯುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾರೆ , ಆದರೆ ಸರಿಯಾದ ಮಾರುಕಟ್ಟೆ ಬೆಲೆಯಿಲ್ಲದೆ ಭಾವನೆ ಪಡುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾರೆ , ಜೊತೆಗೆ ರೈತರನ್ನು ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿ ಪಡಿಸುತ್ತೇವೆ ಎನ್ನುವ ಸರ್ಕಾರಗಳು ಬಂಡವಾಳಶಾಹಿಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಪರೋಕ್ಷ ಹಾಗು ಪ್ರತ್ಯಕ್ಷವಾಗಿ  ಕೈಗಾರಿಕೆ , ಭೂ-ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಯ ಹೆಸರಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಕೃಷಿಯೇತರ ಉದ್ದೇಶಕ್ಕೆ ರೈತರ ಭೂಮಿಯನ್ನು ಕಬಳಿಸುವ ಪ್ರಕ್ರಿಯೆ ಭರದಿಂದ ಸಾಗಿದೆ .
ದಶಕಗಳ ಹಿಂದೆ ಎತ್ತ ನೋಡಿದರು ಹಚ್ಚ ಹಸಿರು ಹೊಲ , ಗದ್ದೆ ಹಾಗು ತೋಟಗಳು ಎದ್ದು ಕಾಣುತ್ತಿದ್ದ ಜಾಗದಾಳಿಯಿ ಇಂದು ಎತ್ತ ನೋಡಿದರು ಮುಗಿಲು ಮುತುವ ಕಾಂಕ್ರೀಟ್ ಕಾಡುಗಳು ತಲೆಯೆತ್ತುತ್ತಲೇ ಸಾಗಿವೆ. ಬೆಳೆಯುತ್ತರುವ ಸ್ಪರ್ದಾದ್ಮಕ ಜಗತ್ತಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಎಲ್ಲವು ಅನಿವಾರ್ಯವೇ ಆದರೂ ಜೀವೇಕೋಟಿಗೆ ಗಾಳಿ , ನೀರು ಹಾಗು ಆಹಾರಕ್ಕೆ ಪ್ರಥಮ ಆದ್ಯತೆ ನೀಡುವುದು ಅತ್ಯವಶ್ಯಕ  ಭೂ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಯ ಹೆಸರಿನಲ್ಲಿ ರಿಯಲ್ ಎಸ್ಟೇಟ್ ದಂಧೆಯ ಪರಿಣಾಮವಾಗಿ ಕೃಷಿಭೂಮಿ ಕ್ಷೀಣಿಸುತ್ತಿರುವುದರ ಜೊತೆಗೆ ಪರಿಸರ ನಾಶವಾಗುವ ಕಾರಣ ಮುಂದಿನ ದಿನಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ನಮ್ಮ್ ಮನೆಗಳ ಬೆಡ್‌ರೂಮ್ ಹಾಲ್ಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ನಮ್ಮ್ ಆಹಾರವನ್ನು ಬೆಳೆದು ತಿನ್ನುವ ಪರಿಸ್ತಿತಿ ಬರುವುದರಲ್ಲಿ ಎರಡು ಮಾತಿಲ್ಲ.