5dd548679a8e81bda5ca4b23b9f1d148b8eede38bb8950cec2 AgroWiki : Online Agriculture Library: December 2016

Sunday, 18 December 2016

Organic Farming Vs Conventional Farming






Organic Farming

Organic farming is the traditional method of farming which has been practiced in India since ancient times , organic farming primarily aims at  cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way, as to keep the soil alive and in good health by use of organic wastes  and other biological materials along with beneficial microbes to release nutrients to crops for increased sustainable production in an eco-friendly pollution free environment. The main advantage of organic farming is it conserves the soil health by soil erosion, encouraging soil microbial activity and enables the farmers to use the soil for a long time.

Definitions of Organic Farming


Organic farming is also called natural farming, chemical free farming.

Definition by FAOOrganic agriculture is a unique production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity, and this is accomplished by using on-farm agronomic, biological and mechanical methods in exclusion of all synthetic off-farm inputs”.

Definition by US Dept of Agriculture : organic farming is a system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic inputs (such as fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, feed additives etc) and to the maximum extent feasible rely upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, off-farm organic waste, mineral grade rock additives and biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection.

General Definition: In general Organic Farming can be defined as an integrated farming system that strives for sustainability, the enhancement of soil fertility and biological diversity whilst, with rare exceptions, prohibiting synthetic pesticides, antibiotics, synthetic fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, and growth hormones.


Advantages of Organic Farming:

  • Organic Farming reduces the cost of cultivation up to 30 percent since the cost incurred on the fertilizers and plant protection chemicals can be omitted, besides organic farming is proven to be more profitable than conventional farming when adopted the right farming practice.
  • Organic Farming conserves soil fertility for a long time by maintaining organic matter levels, encouraging soil biological activity and thus enabling the farmer to use the soil for a long time.
  • Organic farming promotes ecological balance as it has a positive effect on ecosystem supporting the wildlife apart from providing safe pasture lands for grazing.
  • Organic Farming is not only beneficial for farmers but it has also proved useful for the dairy industry. Cattle feed from organic farmlands have been found to be less prone to diseases and they yield more milk. These are definitely good signs for a consumer of these dairy products from the health perspective and for a dairy organization from the profit perspective. 
  • Products or foodstuff produced from organic farming neither contain any sort of artificial flavor or preservatives nor do they contain any harmful chemicals and the food produced from organic farming are found to be tastier than conventional farming.
  • The original nutritional content of food is preserved due to the absence of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.
  • The soil is the most important component in farming and organic farming preserves soil by reducing soil erosion up to a large extent.
  • Consumption of products obtained from organic farming minimizes the risk of physical ailments such as heart attacks. Scientific studies have proven that organic foods are healthier than the inorganic ones.

Disadvantages of Organic Farming
  • Yields obtained by Organic farming are found to be relatively lower when compared to the yields of Conventional farming.
  • The products of Organic farming are relatively more expensive than the products of Conventional farming.
  • Organic Farming is Labour Intensive Farming.



Conventional Farming

As of now, there is no definite definition for conventional farming. In General conventional farming can be described as an external input oriented and input intensive type of farming which mainly concentrates on increasing the productivity of a given land by application of artificial fertilizers and plant protection chemicals. 
Conventional farming was not practiced until the mid-nineteenth century, the main cause for the widespread of conventional farming was the Green Revolution which was initiated by Dr. Norman Ernest Borlaug.


Advantages of Conventional Farming 

  • The yields obtained through conventional farming are high compared to organic farming hence conventional farming is  helpful in feeding the growing population.
  • Conventional farming is less labor intensive.
  • Products of Conventional farming are cheaper when compared to Organic Farming.

Disadvantages of  Conventional Farming



  • Land Exhaustion: Constant application of Chemical fertilizers gradually reduces the fertility of land and thereby reducing the productive capacity of the soils also due to the indiscriminate use chemical fertilizers, the natural fertility of the soil is lost.
  • Continuous use of Chemicals on the soils results in soil compaction, soil erosion, salinization, decrease in the water holding capacity of soils which affects the overall productive capacity of soils.
  • Overuse of the chemicals also causes the death of the beneficial microorganisms in the soil and thereby decreasing the natural soil biological activities.
  • Application of pesticides also kills beneficial insects which help plants in many ways like pollination etc.
  • Another major disadvantage of conventional farming is that conventional farming is hazardous to the environment, Animals and humans as it is associated with environmental pollution.


Organic Farming or Conventional Farming



As of the present situation, the primary emphasis has to be given to the productivity of the lands since it is the only possible means by which we can meet the food requirements of our growing population.With the decrease in the area under cultivation are degrading  and lands losing fertility, we are failing to produce enough food to  full fill the hunger of the growing populous of the globe. This inverse relation between the Population growth and Food production gives rise to a dilemma, that is, increasing food production per unit land in a given time is the only way through which we can meet the food requirements of all the people of the world, But this is not possible through Organic Farming  since the yield obtained under organic Farming is found to be much lesser than Conventional farming. the productivity of a given land can only be increased by following conventional farming.
This situation where we are stuck between two choices is the Dilemma we are facing.


→ If we go for Organic farming, we will not be able to meet the food requirements of the globe but we can maintain ecological balance as well a strive towards maintaining a healthy sustainable future.

→ If we choose Conventional farming, then we might be able to full fill the food requirements of the globe up to a certain extent. But there is a big list of the ill effects caused by Conventional farming on the Soil, Environment, Animals, and Humans.

So the final question before is Organic Farming or Conventional Farming:

We have listed some possible answers for the question above:

1. If you choose Conventional Farming: 
  • Limited use of the fertilizers and plant protection chemicals or use of the chemicals according to the recommended dosages might help in reducing the ill effects of the chemicals on the environment.
  • Decreasing the intensity of any resource that is used in production process while trying to make the efficient utilization of the available resources.
  • We can also try integrating Organic and Conventional farming so as to minimize the pollution and at the same time maximize the food production.

2. If you choose Organic Farming



  • Try to intensify the farming practices by applying more organic fertilizers and following right cropping Systems (cropping pattern + management). Following crop rotation, cultivate legumes after cereals, intercropping crops which are beneficial to each other or less competitive towards each other.
  • Incorporate  more biofertilizers like Azotobacter, Azospirullum.
  • Timely and efficient management of events and available resources. Example: 
  1. Taking up sowing and weeding operations at right times. Ex: sowing of Boro Paddy must be done during December-January.
  2. If only one irrigation is available then irrigation should be given during the most critical stage of irrigation of the particular crop. Ex: In the case of Wheat the most critical stage of irrigation is the Crown Root initiation stage which is after 21 days after sowing. So if only one irrigation is available then, irrigation must be given during CRI stage in case of Wheat.
By following these steps the yields can be increased up to a certain extent if not up to expected level but this can be covered by the positive effects of organic farming on the Soil and environment.
In addition to these, studies conducted by researchers from a few reputed universities have found that organic farming has outyielded conventional farming.

In this context, Sikkim has inspired the whole nation to go back to its roots by becoming the first fully organic state in India and also have managed to successfully expand its Agrarian economy.

Conclusion: Organic Farming holds Key to a Healthy Sustainable future.




Saturday, 10 December 2016

Being Organic


Advantages of organic farming

Even though Green Revolution in India initiated prosperous growth in the food sector making us self-sufficient , it has deprived us of the holistic Organic culture which our farmers have practiced for centuries . It has also made us subsidy dependent and cheap chemical and electricity users wiping out the natural predators , exhausting groundwater and curbing the creation of healthier gene-pool.

Many states pioneered in the production of  Paddy, Wheat and cotton production levels by using plant protection chemicals which shot up nearly thirty-five times. However, we soon discovered the detrimental effects on the healthy life caused by extreme conventional farming. Most farmers either use the wrong chemical or overuse the chemicals and harvest the crops immediately after spraying.

It is estimated that only 10 percent of the sprayed pesticides reaches the pests and the rest 90 percent
enters the ecosystem contaminating the water and air and disturbing the natural Flora and Fauna.
Farmers of India take the least precaution to cover their body while spraying chemicals, some of them even reuse the containers of the chemicals to store food items.
Adulterated chemicals pose unique problems in farming, perpetually increasing the cost of production and mounting up losses. Pesticide residues in farm products have reduced demand for Indian foods in international markets.

Sikkim has inspired the whole nation to go back to its roots by becoming the first fully organic state in India.

Sikkim's Organic mission has become a success story after a decade of people's involvement in and strong political will. Farmers who embraced the ideology unanimously then, now earn 20 percent more than they did earlier,. Many of them have turned exporters.  Eco-tourism and more active participation by youngsters have evoked more business interest in the state from across the country.

States like Kerala, Mizoram, and Arunachal Pradesh are all in a race to become the health capitals of the country taking their development close to nature. In Gods own country - Kerala, massive policy changes have been initiated for the well-being of the general populace and the environment have been initiated in the wake of several cases of Central Nervous System disorders caused due to heavy Endosulphan spray on Cashew plantations in Kasargod.

In view of all these negative effects of the use of chemicals, it is necessary to practice organic farming.
Agriculture must never be external input oriented when there are so much of farm resources that can be used for farming. 
Organic farming holds remedy to eliminate poison in food chain ethically and also nullify escalating farmer suicide rates. waste to wealth conversion is another consequential effect of organic farming which bridges resource, energy, and nutrient management. Let us emulate the glory of Sikkim in every State of India. 


Advantages of Organic Farming

  • Organic Farming reduces the cost of cultivation up to  30 percent since the cost incurred on the fertilizers and plant protection chemicals can be omitted, besides organic farming is proven to be more profitable than conventional farming when adopted the right farming practice.
  • Organic Farming conserves soil fertility for a long time by maintaining organic matter levels, encouraging soil biological activity and thus enabling the farmer to use the soil for a long time.
  • Organic farming promotes ecological balance as it has a positive effect on ecosystem supporting the wildlife apart from providing safe pasture lands for grazing.
  • Organic Farming is not only beneficial for farmers but it has also proved useful for the dairy industry. Cattle feed from organic farmlands have been found to be less prone to diseases and they yield more milk. These are definitely good signs for a consumer of these dairy products from a health perspective and for a dairy organization from the profit perspective. 
  • Products or foodstuff produced from organic farming neither contain any sort of artificial flavor or preservatives nor do they contain any harmful chemicals and the food produced from organic farming are found to be tastier than conventional farming.
  • The original nutritional content of food is preserved due to the absence of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.
  • The soil is the most important component in farming and organic farming preserves soil by reducing soil erosion up to a large extent.
  • Consumption of products obtained from organic farming minimizes the risk of physical ailments such as heart attacks. Scientific studies have proven that organic foods are healthier than the inorganic ones.
On the overall, Organic agriculture sustains and enhances the health of soil, plant, animal, human and planet as one individual. Hence Organic Farming is the key to a Healthier, Sustainable future.




Friday, 9 December 2016

The curse of Starvation Death and Farmers Suicide


Curse of starvation and reasons for farmers suicide

Every day we come across reports about deaths due to starvation as well as suicide by the farmers across the country . Though the country witnessed the green revolution resulting in excess food production , a large number of people in India are still suffering from hunger and farmers who are the backbone of the country are  undergoing traumatizing experience in the process of agricultural activities leading to ending their lives . All these are happening despite concerted efforts by the agricultural scientists and food experts to avert the evil .
If we look into the rate of farmers suicide in the country , on an average 47 farmers have committed suicide every single day in the past one and half decade , in India . Maharashtra , Karnataka , Andhra Pradesh are leading in respect of farmer's suicide in the country.

The farmers do not end their lives just because of any family feud or any incurable diseases , they are taking this extreme step of ending their lives leaving their dependents at lurch , purely because of financial distress , i.e unable to bear the burnt loans they have taken for agricultural activities.

The policies of the successive governments have not come to the rescue of the peasants who grow everything for sustaining the nation . Unlike industries , the farmers do not get support prices for their produces . They have to rely on the middlemen and get only a meager amount for their hard work , finally they end up caught in the big net of loans and when the loans grow into huge burden , they finally decide to commit suicide.

While lack of proper marketing infrastructure which enables the peasants to get reasonable price for their produces is one of the reasons , the absence of proper financial arrangement for them from the government is another cause for the growing distress among the farming folk of the country . It is a well known fact that majority of the poor people including farmers have to depend on private money lenders for their loan who generally charge high rate of interests leading to farmer's inability to repay it and losing their land other means of livelihood.

While on the one hand farmers who produces and supply food grains to the country are reeling under unending problems , the country is witnessing the "problem of plenty" amid  numerous deaths due to starvation. It is estimated that on an average, every 4 seconds a person dies due to starvation or hunger related problems and 21,000 people die everyday ., A number mothers die due to Anemia which is due to lack of nutrition , like wise thousands of children die everyday due to malnutrition . Deaths due to starvation has become very common in backward states like  Bihar , Kalahandhi is the best example for this where are even forced to eat mud bread  to satisfy their hunger.
At this time it is right to quote Mahatma Gandhi's quote " Leaving people to suffer from starvation is also a form of terrorism". Then what is the cause for these , is there not enough food grains to feed all the mouths in the country , the obvious answer is yes , though there has been increase in the production of food grains , we still are unable to sustain lives of the growing population. If we look into the current situation , we can observe that the population is increasing inversely to the agricultural production , even though we are producing enough food grains to feed all the people , about 120 to 160 lakh tonnes of the grains are being  spoiled every year due to lack of proper storing facilities. 

The Supreme court of India has suggested to the govt of India to distribute the food grains to the poor instead of storing them so that the food is not wasted and eaten by rodents , however the govt has tried taken an appropriate measure in this direction . The  FOOD SECURITY BILL which is ought ensure the right to food of the people by providing enough grains to people . According to renowned Agriculture Scientist Dr. M.S. Swaminathan , The National Food Security Bill is the last to convert Gandhiji's vision of hunger free India into reality . Mahatma Gandhi's desire was that the "God of Bread should be present in every hut in India". In this context , let us all hope that the administrators awake to the need of hour and strive to put an end to the curse of hunger and farmer's suicides.

Sunday, 4 December 2016

ಕೃಷಿ ಕುಸುರಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಕಾಣದ ಕೈಗಳು


role of women in agriulture

ಭಾರತ ಕೃಷಿ ಪ್ರದಾನ ದೇಶ, ಶೇಕಡ 60 ಭಾರತದ ಜನಸಂಖ್ಯೆ ಕೃಷಿಗೆ ಅವಲಂಬಿತವಾಗಿ ಜೀವನ ನಡೆಸುತ್ತಿದೆ. ನಾಡಿಗೆ ಅನ್ನವನ್ನು ನೀಡುವ ರೈತನೇ ದೇಶದ ಬೆನ್ನೆಲುಬು . ಮಣ್ಣಿಗೆ ಅನ್ನದಾತನ ಬೆವರಿನ ಹನಿಗಳ ಸ್ಪರ್ಶದ ನಂತರವೇ ಬೆಳೆಯೊಳಗಿನ ಕಾಳಾಗಿ ಮಣ್ಣು ಮಾತಾಡಬಲ್ಲುದು, ಅಪಾರ ಜನಸಂಖ್ಯೆಯ ಈ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕ್ಕೆ ಅನ್ನ ನೀಡಲು ಸಾದ್ಯವಾಗುವುದು, ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಟಿತ ಕಾರ್ಖಾನೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ, ಮಹಾನ್ ಮಹಲುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ತಯಾರಿಸಲಾಗದಂತಹ ಆಹಾರವನ್ನು ಹೊಲವೆಂಬ ನೆಲದಿಂದ ಬೆಳೆತೆಗೆಯುವ ಮನುಕುಲದ ಮಹಾದೀಪ, ರೈತನಿಗೆ ಬೆನ್ನೆಲುಬಾಗಿ, ಕೃಷಿಯ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಕಾರ್ಯಗಳಲ್ಲೂ ತನ್ನ ಕುಶಲತೆಯನ್ನು ಬೆರೆಸುವ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಪಾತ್ರ ಭಾರತೀಯ ಕೃಷಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮಹತ್ತ್ರವಾದ್ದುದಾಗಿದೆ."ಯಾವುದೇ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರದ ಪರಿಸ್ಥಿಯನ್ನು ಆ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರದ ಮಹಿಳೆಯರಿಗಿರುವ ಸ್ಥಾನಮಾಂಗಳನ್ನು ನೋಡಿಯೇ ಹೇಳಬಹುದು" ಎಂದು "ಜವಾಹರ್ ಲಾಲ್ ನೆಹರು" ಅವರ ಮಾತುಗಳಿಂದ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಮಹತ್ಟವಾದ ಸ್ಥಾನ, ಸಮಾಜ ಮಹಿಳೆಗೆ ನೀಡಬೇಕಾದ ಗೌರವಗಳ ಬಗೆಗೆ ಅರಿವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ನಮ್ಮೆಲ್ಲರ ಜೀವನದಲ್ಲಿ, ತಾಯಿಯಾಗಿ, ಸೋದರಿಯಾಗಿ, ಮಡದಿಯಾಗಿ, ಮಗಳಾಗಿ, ಗೆಳತಿಯಾಗಿ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಪಾತ್ರಗಳನ್ನು ಸಮರ್ಪಕವಾಗಿ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುವ ಮಹಿಳೆಯು, ದೇಶದ ಕೃಷಿಯ ಸುಂದರ ಕುಸುರಿಯನ್ನು ನೇಯುತ್ತಿರುವುದು , ಕೃಷಿಯನ್ನು ಮುನ್ನಡೆಸುತ್ತಿರುವುದರಲ್ಲಿ ಬಹುಪಾಲು ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಆಪಾರ ಪರಿಶ್ರಮದಲ್ಲಿ ಅಡಗಿದೆ. ಅಬಲೆಯಲ್ಲ-ಸಬಳೆಯೆಂದು ನಿರೂಪಿಸಲು, ಹೆಣ್ಣು, ಕೃಷಿಯಿಂದ ಹಿಡಿದು, ಗಗನಯಾತ್ರಿಯವರೆಗಿನ ಕೆಲಸಗಳನ್ನು ಹೆಮ್ಮೆಯಿಂದ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾಳೇ.

"Women Feed the World" ಎನ್ನುವ ಆಂಗ್ಲ ಘೋಷಣೆ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಉನ್ನತ ಜವಾಬ್ಧಾರಿಯನ್ನು ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತಿರುವುದನ್ನು ಹೇಳುತ್ತದೆಯಾದರೂ, ಪರಿಶಯ ತಕ್ಕು ಮನರೆಯಾಗಲಿ, ವೇತನವಾಗಲಿ ದೊರೆಯುತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ ಕಹಿಯಾದರೂ ಸತ್ಯವಾಗಿದೆ. ಭಾರತದಲ್ಲಿ ಶೇಕಡ 80 ರಷ್ಟು ಮಹಿಳೆಯರು ಕೃಷಿಯ ಕೆಲಸಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ತೊಡಗಿಕೊಂಡಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಬೀಜ ಬಿತ್ತುವುದರಿಂದ ಹಿಡಿದು, ಬೆಲೆಯೂ ಕೊಯ್ಲಾಗಿ, ಕಾಳು ಒಕ್ಕಣೆ ಮಾಡುವವರೆಗೂ ಕೃಷಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಪಾತ್ರವಿದೆ. ನೇಗಿಲು ಹಿಡಿದು ಹೊಲದಲ್ಲಿ ಉಳುವ ರೈತ ಗಂಡಸಾದರೂ, ಎತ್ತುಗಳನ್ನು ಗದ್ದೆಯ ಬದಿಗೆ ಕೊಂಡೊಯ್ದು ನೂಗ-ನೇಗಿಲುಗಳನ್ನು ಏರಿಸಲು ಸಹಾಯಕಳಾಗೂವುದ್ದಲ್ಲದೆ, ಉಳುಮೆಯ ಸಾಲುಗಳನ್ನು ಗುರುತಿಸಲು ಇನ್ನೂ ಕೆಲವೊಮ್ಮೆ ಉಳುಮೆಗೆ ಹೂರಿ-ಕೋನಗಳು ಎಲ್ಲಡೆ ಇರುವಾಗ ನೇಗಿಲಿಗೆ ಹೆಗಲನ್ನು ಒಡ್ಡುವ ಕೆಲಸವನ್ನೂ ಸಹ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತಾಳೆ.
ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ದುಡಿಮೆಯಲ್ಲಿನ ಸೂಕ್ಷ್ಮತೆ, ಕೆಲಸದ ಗ್ರಹಿಕೆ, ನೈಪುಣ್ಯತೆ, ತಾಳ್ಮೆ, ಶ್ರೆದ್ದೆ, ಕೃಷಿಯ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ತಣ್ನ್ಡೆಯಾದ ಪ್ರಭಾವವನ್ನು ಬೀರಿದೆ. ಕಳೆ ನಿರ್ವಹಣೆಯ ಕಾರ್ಯ ಹೆಣ್ಣಿಗೆ ಮೀಸಲಾಗಿದೆ ಎನ್ನುವಷ್ಟರ ಮಟ್ಟಿಗೆ ಕಳೆಯ ಕೆಲಸವನ್ನು ಇಂದು ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾಳೆ . ಕಸರತ್ತಿನ ಆಟದಂತೆ ಗೂಚರಿಸುವ ಪೈರು ಕೊಯ್ಲು ಆದಮೇಲೆ ಭತ್ತವನ್ನು ಕಳೆದು ಹುಲ್ಲು ವಕ್ಕಣೆ ಮಾಡುವವರು ಮಹಿಳೆಯರೇ. ಗದ್ದೆಯ ಪೈರನ್ನು ಕೊಯ್ದು ಸೂಡಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕಟ್ಟಿ ಅದನ್ನು ಬಿಡಿಸಿ ಇಡುವ ಕಲಾವಂತಿಕೆ ಮಹಿಳೆಗೆ ಸಿದ್ಧವಾಗಿದೆ.ಧಾನ್ಯ ಸಂಗ್ರಹಣೆ ಮತ್ತು  ಒಕ್ಕಣೆಯನ್ನು ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುವಾಗ ಧಾನ್ಯವನ್ನು ತೂರುವ, ಗಾಳಿಯ ಗುರುತಿಸಿ ಕಸವನ್ನು ತೂರಿ ಕಾಳನ್ನು ಸಂಗ್ರಹಿಸುವ, ಹಗೇವುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಧಾನ್ಯವನ್ನು ತುಂಬುವ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಕಾರ್ಯಗಳನ್ನು ಮಹಿಳೆ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾಳೆ. ಮಾಡುವ ಕೆಲಸದಲ್ಲಿ ತನಗೆಷ್ಟು ಮಾನ್ಯತೆ ಸಿಗುತ್ತದೆ ಎನ್ನುವುದನ್ನು ಲೆಕ್ಕಿಸದೆ, ಕುಟುಂಬದ ಹಿತವನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸುವ ಮನಃಸ್ಥಿತಿ, ಗಂಡಿಗಿಂತ ಹೆಣ್ಣಿಗೆ ಜಾಸ್ತಿ ಎಂದರೆ ತಪ್ಪಾಗಲಾರದು.
ಕೃಷಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾರ್ಯ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತಿರುವ ಭಾರತೀಯ ಮಹಿಳೆಯನ್ನು ನಾಲ್ಕು ತೆರನಾಗಿ ವಿಂಗಡಿಸಬಹುದು.

1.ಆಹಾರ ಉತ್ಪಾದಕರು   (Independent producers)
2.ಕೃಷಿ ಕಾರ್ಯಗಳ ಪಾಳುಧಾರರು  (Agricultural partners)
3.ಕೃಷಿ ಗೃಹಿಣಿ  (Farm home women)
4.ಕೃಷಿ ಕಾರ್ಯಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಹಾಯಕರು (Agricultural Helpers).

ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಪಾತ್ರ ಕೃಷಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಅತ್ಯಂತ ಅವಶ್ಯಕ್ವಾಗಿದ್ದರು, ಅನೇಕ ಕಾರಣಗಳಿಂದ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಋಷಿ ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳನ್ನು ಗುರುತಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ.


  • ಕಳೆ ತೆಗೆಯುವುದು, ಕಾಳು ಹನಸು ಮಾಡುವುದು, ಸಸಿ ನೆಡುವುದು ಮುಂತಾದ ಪ್ರಮೂಕ ಕೆಲಸಗಳನ್ನು ಚಿಕ್ಕ ಕೆಲಸಗಳೆಂದು ಭಾವಿಸಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯೇ ಈ ಕೆಲಸಗಳನ್ನು ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸಬೇಕೆಂದು ನಿರೀಕ್ಷಿಸುವುದು.
  • ಬಹುತೀಕ ಕೃಷಿ ಭೂಮಿಗೆ ಪುರುಷನೇ ಎಜಮಾನನಾಗಿರುವುದು.
  • ಮಹಿಳೆ ಕೆಲಸಗಾರರಿಗೆ ಕಡಿಮೆ ವೇತನ.
  • ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಕೃಷಿ ಕೆಲಸಗಳನ್ನು ಪರಿಗಣಿಸದೆ ಇರುವುದು.
  • ಯಾವುದೇ ಕೃಷಿ ತರಬೇತಿ ಕಾರ್ಯಕ್ರಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಕಡಿಮೆ ಹಾಜರಾತಿ.
  • ಪುರುಷ ಕೆಂದ್ರಿತ ತಂತ್ರಜ್ಞಾನಗಳು.
  • ಅಪೌಷ್ಟಿತ ಮಹಿಳೆಯರು ಇನ್ನೂ ಅನೇಕ ಕಾರಣಗಳಿಂದ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಕೃಷಿ ಕೆಲಸ ಪುರುಷನ ಕೃಷಿ ಕೆಲಸಗಳಷ್ಟು ಮಾನ್ಯತೆ ಪಡೆದಿಲ್ಲ.


ಕೃಷಿ ವಿಸ್ತರಣಾ ಕಾರ್ಯಕ್ರಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿ, ಮಹಿಳಾ ಭಾಗವಹಿಸುವಿಕೆಯನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸುವುದರಿಂದ, ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಸೇವಾಮನೋಭಾವ, ಹಣ ಉಳಿಸುವಂತಹ ಗುಣ, ಸಹಕಾರ ಮುಂತಾದ ಕಾರಣಗಳಿಂದ ಯಶಸ್ವಿಯಾಗಿರುವ, ಸ್ತ್ರೀಶಕ್ತಿ ಸ್ವಸಹಾಯ ಸಂಘಗಳ  ಮೂಲಕ, ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯನ್ನು ಕೃಷಿಯ ಪ್ರಗತಿಯನ್ನು ಸಾಧಿಸಬಹುದು.
ಕೃಷಿ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನ ಕೇಂದ್ರಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮಹಿಳಾ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನಿಗಳನ್ನು ನೀಮಿಸುವುದರ ಮೂಲಕ, ಗ್ರಾಮೀಣ ಪ್ರದೇಶ ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯರಿಗೆ ಸಹಕಾರಿ ಆಗುತ್ತದೆ.
ತೊಟ್ಟಲೊಳಗಿನ ಮಗಿವಿನಿಂದ ಹಿಡಿದು, ಕೊಟ್ಟಿಗೆ ಹಸುವಿನ ಹಸಿವನ್ನು, ನೀರು, ನೋಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಕೃಷಿ ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳನ್ನು ಗುರುತಿಸಬೇಕಾಗಿದೆ. ಮನೆಯಲ್ಲೂ, ಹೊಲದಲ್ಲೂ ದುಡಿಯುವ ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಗೆ ಸಹಾಯಕಾರಿಯಾಗಲು ಕೃಷಿ ಯಂತ್ರೋಪಕರಣಗಳನ್ನು ತಯಾರಿಸುವಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರಗತಿ ಹೊಂದಬೇಕಾಗಿದೆ.
ಕೃಷಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ರೈತ ಬೇಸತ್ತು, ಜೀವನವೇ ದುರ್ಬರವೆನಿಸಿ ಆತ್ಮಹತ್ಯಾ ವಿಚಾರಕ್ಕೆ ಕೈ ಹಾಕಿದಾಗ ಅರ್ಧಾಂಗಿಯಾಗಿ ಮಾಣೂಸ್ಟೈರ್ಯ ತುಂಬುವ, ಕೆಲವೊಮ್ಮೆ ನೇಗಿಲಿಗೆ ಎತ್ತಾಗಿ ದುಡಿದು, ಬಿದ್ದು ಹೋದ ಬದುಕನ್ನು ಮತ್ತೆ ಕಟ್ಟಿಕೊಡುವ ಗಟ್ಟಿಗಿತ್ತಿ ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಮನೊಬಲವನ್ನು ಮೆಚ್ಚಬೇಕಾಗಿದೆ. ಅಂತಹ ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಗೆ ಬಿರುದು, ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿ, ಸನ್ಮಾನ ಬೇಕಾಗಿರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ. ಸುಂದರ ನೇಯುತ್ತಿರುವುದರ ಹಿಂದಿರುವ ಆ ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಕೈಗಳ ಪರಿಶ್ರಮವ ನಾವು ಅರಿತು ಸಹಕಾರಿಯಾಗಿ ನಿಂತರೆ ಸಾಕಲ್ಲವೇ.??